Overview of Various Health Effects

Notable Studies

Fluoridation and lead

2010: Fluoride increases lead levels in blood and tissue
2007: Confirmation of elevated blood lead in children exposed to fluoridation chemicals
2007: Fluoridation agents leaches lead from brass pipes
2000: Elevated blood lead linked to fluoridation
1999: Children in fluoridated communities have elevated blood lead


2023 Fluoride exposure during pregnancy from a community water supply is associated with executive function in preschool children: A prospective ecological cohort study

2022 Iodine Status Modifies the Association between Fluoride Exposure in Pregnancy and Preschool Boys Intelligence

2020 Fluoride exposure from infant formula and child IQ in a Canadian birth cohort

2019 Association of fluoridation and ADHD in Canadian youth

2019 Association between maternal fluoride exposure during pregnancy and IQ scores in offspring in Canada

2018 Fluoride exposure in-utero associated with ADHD

2017 US Govt funded Bashash study Pre-natal exposure to fluoride linked to lowered IQ.

2015 Fluoridated water correlated to an increase in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
2014 The Lancet article Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity
2012 Harvard Researchers Review and Meta Analysis
2011 Dental Fluorosis linked to Lowered IQ
2007: Fluoride lowers IQ more effectively than arsenic
2004: Fluoride decreases brain nicotinic receptors
2001: Fluoride accumulates in the human pineal gland
1997: Fluoride interferes with pineal gland function
1995: Mullenix groundbreaking study on sodium fluoride and rats


2009: Fluoride high in blood of osteosarcoma patients

2006: Fluoridation associated with osteosarcoma in young males

Developmental effects

2009: Fluoridation associated with premature birth

Uterine Cancer

Fluoride Associated with Uterine Cancer


2015 Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Fluoridation associated with higher prevalence of hypothyroidism prevalence in England

Cost Effectiveness

2014 A critique of recent economic evaluations of community water fluoridation  Kathleen M. Thiessen